Monthly Archives: February 2016

Black History Month: 29 Days of Profiles (Mos Def “Yasiin Bey”)

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The days have grown short in the time of celebration of Black History Month. A time we utilize to pay respect to the path carved before us. A time to immerse ourselves in our rich culture. These last days, I’ve profiled Africans Americans whom are still walk among us. Ones whom impact the NOW of our lives on a cultural, substance level with the love and hope to enrich black life.

In some instances, the cost is great to the individual. See Wheatley and Carmichael. The rebirth of leaders, the parallels are ever turning of ones that were leaving lasting impressions than the new skin that they emerge in. There is no past without a hope for the future. WHY DO YOU THINK THEY SACRIFICED?

One such person is the mighty Mos Def (he changed his name to Yasiin Bey). He is a true reincarnation of the past – Stockley Carmichael. Why do I make this comparison? The loneliness of the two whom struggled so mightily against the forces that have oppressed us, alienated themselves from the majority of Freedom Fighters and produced a more private path of reaching the masses and their conditions. They both excommunicated themselves from America and reached Africa as their resting place! However, Yasiin Bey’s story is still imcomplete. Deeper, is the fact that America does not want this factor of power and “in your face truth, demanding immediate change”. Mos Def is having immigration trouble stemming from these facts… let’s kill the misconception.

The truth is, America wishes Bey to renounce his American citizenship. The charge is usage of fraudulent travel documents using a world passport in a country that, legally, has no extradition laws with the United States. The stance he’s taken against America and its political policies shows his opposition to America’s frequent discrimination practices. Such as, on June 10, 2013, in London, U.S. Rapper Mos Def made a video (check it) to protest the force feeding of prisoners at the U.S. Military detention center at Cuba’s Guantanamo Bay. He was dressed in an orange jump suit like the prisoners while being strapped down, hands and feet shackled and force fed to show America’s regular practice. This and his music, “conscious rap”, if you must label it, is more than the pop culture sound of today. Are the reasons true why America treats Mos Def and his family, whom are with him in South Africa, like terrorists? Mos Def and his wife are on the terrorist No Fly list!

His roots and his way to deliver a deeper message is thru Hip Hop music with a deep love for the black condition and in some circles, the invention of Rock and Roll (Jack Wilson and Chuck Berry). His music is a by-product from the 80’s black pride era in New York City. The height of the B Boy and B Girl stage in Hip Hop Native Tongues, Rakim, Tupac, KRS One, X-Clan, Public Enemy, the Nation of Islam and 5% Nation Era. Yeah, you’re getting it from true Hip Hop enthusiast! In the Hip Hop movement of Africabambata and the likes of Grand Master Flash, self-pride and soul lifting music inspired a young rapper in New York. Like many, the unity and black pride of that period was immeasurable to the wealth that is enjoyed today by the next generation of Hip Hop for an uncountable number of minorities, regardless of gender. Then, the West Coast era of Hip Hop – Gangsta rap told of another condition of blacks on that coast. Hip Hop should be a reflection of the times for minorities. What is the era now? Superficial commercialism and, of course, sex has created arrogant millionaires. But, true to its roots, there is still an element of Hip Hop’s purpose in music. I have not given up on Hip Hop, like most of my peers and older generations of fans. I see the cream. You just have to look a little harder today.

Mos Def’s music is his main source of production. His educational message wrapped in an orator form like Stokely Carmichael is a perfect pitch in the delivery of a soul touching dedication we have to continually improve. The first widely acclaimed recognition came in the September, 1998 album BLACKSTAR Label Rawkus with fellow black conscious rapper, Talib Kwali. It’s legendary in Hip Hop history with tracks like “Definition” and “Respiration”. Most of the production was by the invaluable Hi-Tek. They even had famed Jane Doe, Wordsworth and Punchline on the track “Twice Inna Lifetime”.

But, in all of Mos Def’s music, the message is deeper than the surface sound. The title “BLACKSTAR” refers to the activities of the 1920’s era, black liberator Marcus Garvey, whom founded the U.N.I.A (Universal Negro Improvement Association). Part of that association was the business called The Blackstar Line (1919 – 1922). It was a shipping line incorporated by Garvey and created to facilitate the transportation of goods. Even African Americans to Africans and goods to be traded and sold to the African global economy.

Mos Def has 12 albums. The most dangerous to his well-being by the American government are three – Black On Both Sides (1999), The New Danger (2004) and The Ecstatic (2009). Getting personal for the first and last time, I must tell you of a deeper connection with a track on his New Danger album, the song “Blue Black Jack” with a stunning guitar solo by Shuggie Otis, a 70’s Blues/Jazz guitarist. The song title, as always in Mos Def’s music, has a deeper meaning. “Blue Black Jack” is a song dedicated to boxer Jack Johnson, the first African American Heavyweight Champion. The song praises his stubborn stance against Jim Crow Laws and bigotry by jealous, outrageous whites. My connection is that I focused on Jack Johnson in this 29 day profile, but deeper still, is that a rare piece of Jack Johnson memorabilia has crossed my path at this time in my life. It is a framed photo of Jack Johnson at this famous fight with Jim Jeffries in Reno, NV with a piece of the rope and red ring cloth. We are all connected! Let’s do the one-two on Mos Def…

Dante Terrell Smith Bey (Yasiin Bey) (December 11, 1973 – Current)

Stage names are Mos Def, Black Dante, Pretty Flock “O” and Mighty Mos Def. An activist in a new age way, Mos Def has always been in entertainment roles as a child actor on sitcoms and theatre. He appeared at age 14 in a T.V. movie God Bless the Child (1998).

He was born in Brooklyn, New York as the son of Sheron Smith and Abdul Rahman. He was the eldest of 12 children and step children. His father began as a member of the Nation of Islam, but later followed Imam Warith Deen Mohammed, who merged mainstream Sunni Islam. At the age of 19, Bey took the Shahada, the Muslim Declaration of Faith.

His social and political views in 2000, paired with Talib Kwali, organized the Hip Hop for respect Project to speak out and be active against police brutality in response to the 1999 shooting of Amadu Diallo. In 2000, he also performed a benefit concert for the death row inmate Mumia-Abu-Jumul.

He has musically criticized the Bush Administration for its handling of Hurricane Katrina. On September 7, 2007, he appeared on The Real Time with Bill Mahr to speak on racism against African Americans. His acting career is also a glimpse into his extraordinary talent in the movie roles in 16 Blocks and Def Poetry H.B.O Series. His portrayal of Dr. Vivien Thomas in H.B.O film, Something the Lord Made embodies his social dedication to our condition. He was nominated for an Emmy for his performance.

Dave Chappelle resurged Mos Def to a new generation of Hip Hop fans. The Chappelle’s Show and Dave Chappelle’s Block Party moved the bar of the government’s feeling of the power in this young man’s voice. He went from a promising Hollywood actor (see Italian Job Movies) to being a threat to the Republican establishment.

Most Def’s social and political stance has surpassed his musical and box office benefits. His world and Islam ties have made him in the rare air of being too abrasive to represent the majority of blacks in America with no true ties to any known black American social group. Definitely, America does not like to be blatantly thrust back in its face as Mos Def does. The 2008 election of a black President alarmed the white establishment of the power of minorities and their information sources like Oprah Winfrey, the new age black organizations and Hip Hop music.

Why did I choose Mos Def to represent the living legends portion of my Black History Month profiles? It may seem unclear to many! Yet, his contribution to the NOW of us can be validated in this way. He is the voice of progression directly connected from Hip Hop to the social problems that we’ve dealt with and still fight. He embodies, in the disguise of popular music, the same message of W.E.B Du Bois and Frederick Douglas. He lived with a taste of rebellion of the fiery Stockely Carmichael with an air of loneliness in his vision of our current conditions. He conveyed these struggles in lace beat lyrics with hidden meanings. Not to make you dance, but to make you think with the true intentions of Hip Hop music. A form of expression to address our social ills within our communities and to expose the horrors of discrimination in the world!

Yasiin, if somehow you hear of this writing by the 3-4-5 party, STAY STRONG, STAY SANE! Continue the message.

Yasiin Bey has since retired from music and acting to ease the pressure by the United States government.


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Black History Month: 29 Days of Profiles (Arnette Hubbard)

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In the closing days of Black History Month, I’ve used this historical time line to bring us African Americans, the lives that you can connect to. In some cases, they are still living. I also hope to encompass the wide ranges of influence in the structure of America we’ve touched. The same law system that determined that Dred Scott was not a human being, able to enjoy the same privileges of white men/women, has been invaded and conquered by the likes of one such profiled figure. I share with you, the Honorable Judge Arnette Hubbard and her amazing contribution to the lanes of the American Justice System.

Arnette Hubbard has been a pioneer for black women in the legal field. She graduated from John Marshall Law School in 1969, in a time when few women pursued law degrees and even fewer black women. There is no area in life thru American history where African Americans didn’t evolve and make their mark. It was a time where we had to prove, not only to ourselves, but to whites also, that we were worthy of contribution to society. We directly contradict the century old view from Europeans that Africans belonged to a part of the human race that was backward and barbaric in culture and were lesser evolved in areas of civilization. Let’s meet this amazing Honorable Judge.

Arnette Hubbard (January 11, 19?? – Current)

Please note her undisclosed birth year. Hubbard was born in Stephens, Arkansas. As we covered, she graduated in 1969, passed her Bar exam on the first try and rose to lead lawyer status for 28 years. She was a champion for poor blacks, providing quality representation that they could not otherwise afford. In 1977, she became a Judge. Her circle was strength thru her family. Her mother, mother in law and other women helped with her children as she climbed the law ladder. Hubbard always credits the support network of women as her backbone of success. She is quoted as saying “From ancient African societies to the sisterhoods of women even in slave communities have networked and have depended on one another for emotional support and stability”.

Her career was during a time when the American Bar Association reported that women only made up 3% of all lawyers/judges in the nation (1971 report). However, the Women’s Rights Movement of the 70’s demanded equality in jobs and other walks of life. The movement opened many doors for women.

In 1981, Hubbard again broke another barrier when she became the first woman President of the National Bar Association, this country’s largest group of African American lawyers/judges. Throughout her career, Hubbard has continually been an advocate of civil rights, voting registry and civil justice to minorities. In 1997, she began a six year term as a Circuit Court Judge for Cook County in Illinois. Her peers have acknowledged her stellar accomplishments. She has earned some prestigious awards, including the Clarence Darrow Award. In 2000, she received the Obelisk Award for education and community service.

Sadly, I have to report a hate crime committed against her in 2014. You may have heard of her through this incident. Outside the Daly Center in Downtown Chicago, on July 14, 2014, David Nicosia, the President of I.T. consulting business, reportedly got into an argument with Ms. Hubbard. She was smoking a cigarette near him outside where he allegedly slapped her in the face and spat on her. Ms. Hubbard was 79 years old. He made racial comments like “Rosa Parks, MOVE”! When he was arrested, an officer was reported as saying “Man, you have slapped the wrong person”. He was charged with four counts of aggravated battery and a hate crime. His case is still pending.

Hubbard is a credit to our cause in an area that has done the most damage to us, without proper representation by us. She broke barriers for women, as well as blacks. Pay homage to the still living Ms. Hubbard and remember, we’re not that far away from the pain.

Love my nation – KJS

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Black History Month: 29 Days of Profiles (Dr. Charles Dewitt Watts)

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Happy Black History month – day 24. Please take time of these “pride all around you days”. Take just a minute a day to reflect on someone from the past who’s contribution affects your life today. If you are a person whom does black women’s hair, Annie Malone directly affects you and how you get your money! I am a writer, so I have many. I feel the passion of author James Baldwin. If you’re aspirations are becoming a doctor in the medical field, Dr. Charles Dewitt Watts might move your motivation to a new level. We will focus, today, on this man of medicine. He may have taken the Hippocratic Oath, but he was moved by the achievements of Onesimus, the slave Doctor. I continue to express how we are connected by more than color. We are bonded by the alienation of the blacks in America. We had to rely on the kindness and love of one another to survive, to grow and prosper and to build the American black man/woman as an influential and powerful representation in this world.

We’ve injected ourselves as a race in America in every walk and fabric of American culture. The medical field is no different.

Charles Dewitt Watts (September 21, 1917 – July 12, 2004)

He was an active American Surgeon, activist for the poor, Howard University Trustee and leader in health care for the poor.

Watts was born in Atlanta, Georgia as the youngest of four children. His father was a store owner, butcher and fruit grocer. The lessons he and his siblings learned had lasting effects of a hard work ethic. Realize his father was a STORE OWNER in the early 1900’s in the South! It was said later by Dr. Watt’s daughter, Constance E. Watts – Welch “It was his lessons by his father, as a butcher that young Charles Watts learned the anatomy of animals before he formally studied it.” As with most extraordinary, we’ve focused on, Dr. Watts was versed in exceptional academics. He was selected to attend Atlanta University Laboratory High School, a school created for exceptional students. Then, he went on to attend Morehouse College. In his first year there, his father/role model died. He secured funds thru diligent work and attended Howard University College of Medicine, which in 1943, obtained his degree and in 1949, completed his surgical residency. Watts was under the tutelage of the famed African American Doctor, Dr. Drew. He was the inventor of the medical procedure and idea of a blood bank and the procedure of long term preservation of blood plasma. He found that plasma kept longer than the whole blood. I mindfully focused on the lesser known of our early and amazing Doctors like Dr. Drew and his medical marvel that still carries on in every blood bank worldwide! They are widely known, so I want to bring to light the wonderment of his prized student, Dr. Charles Dewitt Watts.

Because of Dr. Drew’s encouragement, Watts returned to Howard and went thru the most difficult surgical training program, at that time, in the United States. It should be noted that in 1950, two thirds of certified black surgeons in America had been trained at Howard and influenced by Dr. Drew. Dr. Watts said of his mentor “He succeeded far beyond his dream”.

Dr. Watts left Howard and moved in with his wife, Constance Merrick Watts in her home town of Durham, North Carolina. This is where he set up a private practice and became the director of student health at North Carolina Central University. He began his service to the poor with excellent health care, regardless of how much or how little his patients paid. It was reported that he let families pay their medical bill by doing odd jobs. Once, he was even given farm animals.

In 1965, Dr. Watts became Chief Surgeon at the 150 bed Lincoln Hospital. This was one of the few hospitals that allowed black Doctors. He saw the importance of health care for his under privileged people and while at Lincoln Hospital, he was instrumental in the creation of the Lincoln Community Medical Center, a modern day and free standing clinic. He became known as the Duke of Medicine and in 2002, Duke University created a medical award and grant in honor of his medical accomplishments. They also bestowed on him an honorary Duke degree.

He worked tirelessly for the service of the medical wellbeing in the black communities. His devotion to improving medical conditions of blacks cannot be overstated enough. He was a pioneer in “heart” medicine and blood/plasma, but was better known as the “Doctor of the poor”. He was clearly a visionary. A bright, energetic top Surgeon and a pillar in helping black communities.

After 50 years of medical services, Watts died at home with his loving family at the age of 86 on July 12, 2004. His death was due to complications from diabetes and ironically, a heart disease.

He embodies the grace of being blessed with extreme intelligence, but not allowing his skills to place him above his people or helping them by using his gift to improve conditions in an area of medicine where we were easily dismissed.

I thank you, Dr. Watts. You were a light in an often over looked area, medicine. Still to this day, medical care and access for the poor is an issue. See the Obama Care Plan.

-Simply KJS

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Times change. Yet, sometimes time is slow to change and some of our trials and tribulations need to be addressed and readdressed. Our culture produces the antidote to the haughtiest of the oppressors.

Do you know whom these quotes are from?
“The secret of life is to have no fear. It’s the only way to function”.
“There is a higher law of Government. That’s the law of conscience”.
“The knowledge I have now is not the knowledge I had then.”

These quotes belong to the reverberation of our past, Mr. Stokely Carmichael. The time was the next wave of the Civil Rights Movement. The civil rights most readily identified with our struggle also known as the King Era. The African American Civil Rights Movement is a period in history between 1954 and 1968. Through my chronology, you now understand it has always been in effect. Many cultivated the progression that led to 1954 – 1968.

Martin Luther King was the main figure in this time frame and this period is embossed with his name. Yet, this time burned with outstanding individuals and kings. With a nonviolent stance, they had an opposite side that was no less important to the movement. Though Carmichael’s active participation in the struggle for civil rights barely lasted a decade, he was one of the most followed and he was a charismatic figure in a turbulent time when “real” open faced violence and rhetoric escalated on both sides of the color. How important was he to the “time”? Carmichael coined the motto of the 60’s movement, “BLACK POWER”!

Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture) (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998)

He was born in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. He is remembered in history as a revolutionary civil rights leader.

The ever existence of violence toward US because of color reproduced a fighter from the same cut as Denmark Vessy and Gabriel Prosser. The cultural solution of our resiliency and the self-defense of a nation.

Carmichael moved to Harlem, New York in 1952 at the age of 11. He rejoined his parents, whom left him with two aunts and a grandmother until the family settled in America. Upon his high school years, he attended the elite selective Brone High School of Science in New York. There, he entered based on his academic achievements. In 1960, he was enrolled in Howard University, a historically black university in Washington D.C.

While at Howard, Carmichael joined the Nonviolent Action Group (NAG), an affiliate of the Martin Luther King founded Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In 1964, Carmichael became a full time field organizer for SNCC in Mississippi, a hot bed for racial violence. He worked closely with Gloria Richardson of the SNCC chapter of Maryland. During a protest together in Maryland in June of 1964, Carmichael was hit directly in a chemical gas attack by the National Guard and hospitalized. His main responsibility in the SNCC was to register black voters, which he did on the front lines and was amazing at giving moving speeches that proved results to the cause. In 1966, Carmichael became the fourth chairman of the SNCC after being jailed during the march against fear. It was a solidarity walk from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi. Upon his release, he gave his first black power speech using the words to urge black pride and socio-economic independence. It set him on a stage of a different vibe within a king’s stance. The time coexisted with the element of the Black Panther Party and Malcolm X.

Black Power became a rally cry for young African Americans across the country who were frustrated by the slow progress in civil rights and the “turn the other cheek stance” of Martin Luther King Jr. Everywhere Black Power spread, it gave credit to the image of Carmichael. The young activist represented a front liner. Carmichael was arrested so often as a non-violent volunteer that he lost count after 32. He now embraced his role and began to speak on black separation. The youth looked for a new strength, a new leader for the new direction of frustrated black youth after the assassination of Malcolm X. Carmichael was a spell binding orator with fiery speeches that ignited pride in black youths.

Roy Wilkins and Dr. King scorned the Black Power Movement within the SNCC stance. Carmichael was the tool of the widening split of black leaders of the time. Instead of young people signing “We shall overcome”, new images of militant black men were being shown on T.V. wearing black berets with raised fists. This was the vibe of the Black Panther Party.

In 1967, the SNCC severed ties with Carmichael and he became the Honorary Prime Minister of the Black Panthers. The ultra-militant urban organizer founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. However, even the Black Panthers were not radical enough for Carmichael. He moved to Guinea in West Africa, making the exit statement “America does not belong to the blacks and calling all black Americans to follow”. The break from the Panther party and his relocation to Africa disconnected him with the current events of American life. In 1968, after his name change to Kwame Ture, he married Miriam Mukeba. She was a South African famed singer. He became involved in the world stage of black problems, the global Pan African movement. Ture continued to live in Guinea. His answering machine greeting and the greeting he gave when answering the phone was “Ready for the revolution”.

In 1998, Ture died from prostate cancer at age 57 in Cunakry, Guinea. His legacy is one of cultural strength in a time when self-defense was most needed.

Reporting live from the past – KJS

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Black History Month: 29 Days of Profiles (A. Philip Randolph)

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Happy Black History Month on this 21st day of our heritage and our celebration of the condition no other race could have overcome. We celebrate the resiliency of culture and the in-roads that have brought us to the edge of equality.

In every area of American culture, we have had to fight for the landscape of jobs, employment and fair treatment. It was, and still is, no less than a struggle for African Americans as well. In this area, A. Philip Randolph’s contribution is immeasurable. He addressed again and again the importance of equal pay and safe conditions for black employees. Randolph was the most important civil rights leaders that emerged to lead the black labor movement! Throughout his long career, he consistently kept the interests of black workers at the forefront of the racial agenda. Others, such as W.E.B Du Bois, pushed in the area of the color line problem. Randolph, at any and all black leader’s conventions, concluded the real question. Lay with the common man, the working class to improve “blacks”.

Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979)

He is referred to as A. Philip Randolph and was a socialist and a leader in the African American Civil Rights Movement and American Labor Movement. We’re talking about a man who knew W.E.B Du Bois as a peer and was looked up to by Martin Luther King Jr. It was he, Randolph, that was the chosen leader in 1963 as the “head” of the march on Washington organized by Mr. Bayard Rustin. At this event, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech.

But, let’s go back and look at Randolph’s progression as the champion of the working class common man/woman African American. He was born in Crescent City, Florida. The son of Rev. James W. Randolph and Elizabeth R. Randolph, a seamstress. In 1891, the family moved with him and his older brother to Jacksonville, Florida, a thriving and well established all black working-class community. He and his brother got their strength and dignity in our black race from this city.

We are entering a period in our black time line where the grandparents were ex slaves. Randolph and his brother, mother and father were born free. His father taught in his church that color was less important than one’s character and conduct! A. Randolph and his brother James were superior students. They attended Cookman Institute in East Jacksonville, the only all black high school in Florida. Randolph’s next stage in life came after graduation. He read W.E.B Du Bois’ “The Souls of Black Folks” and became inspired to fight for social equality.

In 1917, he and his friend Chandler Owen founded the “Messenger”, a magazine that focused on good character instead of race. He praised President Woodrow Wilson as readily as Du Bois. The post war (WWI) era limited the possibilities of working class blacks and in 1925, Randolph became the general organizer of the brotherhood of sleeping car porters. In this time, porters and rail workers were jobs African Americans were the majority in. It was a great job to have. The victory laid in the bidding and union of these workers, if you understand Americans’ labor contract and unions. In 1937, the brotherhood of sleeping car porters won the contract bid with railroads.

The victory made Randolph the leading black figure in the labor movement. He also headed the newly founded National Negro Congress. Long before Martin Luther King Jr., he organized a march in Washington D.C. in 1941 to pressure President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue executive order 8802, which banned discrimination in defense industries.

Throughout his endeavors, he never forgot the interests of black workers. In the 1963 march on Washington with MLK Jr., the aim was to obtain government sponsorship of black jobs. However, the Kings speech just overwhelmed the day, as it should have. Although the goal was overshadowed by the surge of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, Randolph stood for economic equality.

Randolph said the only way to racial equality is to become economically independent. He retired in 1968 because of a long, reoccurring heart condition. Sadly, he was mugged by three associates in Harlem, New York. He returned to this Manhattan apartment to write his autobiography until his health forced him to stop. He died in bed in his home on May 16, 1979.

He became a legend in two pushes of the Civil Rights Movements, as well as a champion of the working class blacks. Washington D.C. has an A. Philip Randolph Institute dedicated to his American contribution. Every black employed person in America owes him a debt of gratitude.

A product of the determination of my people – KJS

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Black History Month: 29 Days of Profiles (The Red Summer of 1919)

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Happy Black History Month on the 20th day of our culture of American heritage. The blood we have shed in the name of simple, decent human respect… the horrors at the door in the form of a white hooded, wicked, vile monster. We endured more than any other race in history! “OPPRESSED” and in these times, sympathy has risen from other races. The human bond has brought us to this day.

Have you heard the term “red summer”? It was coined by James Weldon Johnson, a civil rights activist and author. What was the Red Summer?

The Red Summer of 1919 refers to a series of race riots that took place between May and October of 1919. Riots occurred in more than 30 cities throughout the United States. The bloodiest events were in Chicago, Washington D.C., and Elaine, Arkansas.

These race riots were a direct response from angered whites about black soldiers coming home from World War I. In the South, many whites disdained blacks coming home with a new pride. As blacks saw life in other countries like France, many whites hated seeing them in Military uniforms. It sparked a hate. That hate exploded it cities without a planned attack. Some whites feared the trained blacks of the Military. Other causes of these race riots were labor shortages. Once blacks returned to the racial strife, the working class whites in the North, South and Midwest cities resented the new presence of African Americans, now competing for the same jobs.

The first act of violence took place in Charleston, South Carolina. Small cities also broke out in Scranton, Pennsylvania and Syracuse, New York. The largest and bloodiest attacks took place in Washington D.C.; Chicago and Elaine, Arkansas.

Washington D.C.
On July 19 white men were already on edge from seeing black soldiers getting respect and hero praise. After hearing rumors of a black man accused of raping a white woman, a group of white men took to the streets and started beating black men in broad daylight, even pulling them out of street cars. Blacks fought back with new Military skills and weapons after local police refused to intervene. The riots took place for four days. The city was on fire and lit with rage and hatred. Imagine the fear of small children in this race hate filled rampage! The Washington D.C. riots were especially significant because it was one of the only instances where blacks gathered and fought back with organized skill, housing women and children and using their Military skills. Some blacks were even donning their Military uniforms.

In most cities, blacks ran and died unmercifully.

The most violent portion of the Chicago riots began on July 27. A young black man visiting Chicago and the Lake Michigan beaches accidently swam on the South side. As a result, whites swam out and drug this man ashore. They stoned and drowned him. Violence ensued after local police refused to arrest the known attackers for 13 days. Rioters destroyed every black owned business and burned black owned homes. The riot was so anti-black business and homes that at the end, 1,000 blacks were homeless, over 500 injured and over 50 were killed.

This was happening all over American cities at the same time!

Elaine, Arkansas
One of the last pockets of riots happened in Elaine as the National Guard had been dispatched to over 30 cities to restore order. On October 1st, whites tried to disband groups of black share croppers trying to form a union that opposed local planters. Some were also law enforcement and attacked the black farmers. During the cowardly attack, 100 blacks and five whites were killed.

They attacked the new black attitude. They attacked our new, limited wealth. They attacked our attempt to aspire to the dream of being an American. They attacked symbols of our pride.

In Bisbee, Arizona on July 3rd local police, armed to the teeth, attacked the lodge meeting place of the members of the 10th U.S. Cavalry, an African American unit. It was founded in 1866 helped track and protect against Native Americans and fought as an undefeated unit during the war. Famed, even to this day, they were better known as the Buffalo soldiers that Bob Marley sang about. They were disgraced, their lodge was burned down and the unit was massacred.

Some cities imposed Martial law and openly killed blacks. There was no penalty for whites! In Norfolk, Virginia, a white mob attacked a black local homecoming of World War I vets. They burned soldiers alive in their uniforms and openly raped black women in the streets in front of their children. In the wake of this, Harlem and other cities began to form committees for sheer protection. It inspired unity in the black communities.

Claude McKay, a writer and activist.
During this period, many power individuals emerged and their expressions still ring on. McKay was considered the first significant writer of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote from the heart and his poem about the blood bath in the summer of 1919 lives on today. “If We Must Die” was his angry response to the Red Summer of 1919.

This hate came from jealousy from a portion of whites who couldn’t stand the prosperity and the gradual growth of the black race in America. The homecoming of the black soldier whom received praise by France and other countries for their bravery in the war sparked hatred.

Riots and looting that you see now during black protest is nothing new. It’s a learned behavior from the Red Summer of 1919.

Care to be aware – KJS

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Black History Month: 29 Days of Profiles (The Harlem Renaissance)

Happy 17th day in our Black History Month. Yesterday, I profiled the Father of Harlem, Mr. Phillip A. Payton Jr. But, the Harlem Renaissance period was so instrumental to our race’s establishment of our cultural identity. The whole of the movement must be addressed and presented.

Love the contribution to American history…..

Reporting live from the past! Your pathway to history. The Harlem Renaissance, a historical time for US, African Americans.

For my generation, what does it mean when we hear the term Harlem Renaissance?

What it is, brothers and sisters, is an important time in American history. A historical time in African American history. The time period is generally characterized from the 1920’s to the 1930’s, the ending of World War I in 1919 to the beginning of the Great Depression in the 1930’s. The coming of such a cultural center piece for blacks collectively through expression was rooted in its predecessor’s earlier movements and organizations rather successful or not. A mass of past forces contributed to the rise of Harlem. And when the term “Harlem Renaissance” is uttered, it was an African American movement, not only enjoyed in Harlem, but communities and townships were springing up in places like Boston, Atlanta, Chicago and many others. Yet, Harlem became one of the nation’s largest and most densely populated. It was the cultural capitol of “Black America”. The center of the then called, “New Negro”, as captured in the poem by Langston Hughs.

But, all this was a prelude. Still, the original question remains. What was the Renaissance in Harlem? It was an unusually productive period for African Americans in American history. By the rapid growth of urbanization in 1881, property investors were thinking to cash in on the boom of people’s migration to the North and Harlem’s close location to an everyday growing Manhattan. The anticipation for an influx of middle class white residents was never realized or materialized and a result of overbuilding by white speculators.

Harlem became home to every major business of the New York era. Churches, real estate firms, small businesses, black owned banks, insurance companies, the Y.M.C.A, urban league and even the NAACP moved to Harlem. The Harlem Hospital hired its first black doctors and nurses in 1919. The real cause, I think, after Payton’s sound business move, was the “propaganda” of Harlem. One newspaper said “Harlem is a community in which negroes, as a whole, are housed better than in any part of the country”. More so than the white portrayal was the black masses themselves as musicians, writers, authors, pastors and intellectuals all told of a mecca for African Americans where dreams, jobs and respect can be found! The railroad lines were being extended to Harlem and brought blacks far and wide. Some came for the freedom in a small community in a vast nation of racial hatred. Some came for the freedom of expression thru music, art, literature, acting, play writes, theatre and racial organizations as well. Over looked, is that it brought with it an underground movement of crime. The Queen who ran the innovative “numbers” gambling game (where the modern day lottery came from) was the mother of Bumpy Johnson. He fought and won a small victory for the African American population whom were getting viciously exploited by the Italian mafia. Having to pay a percentage of their business income (illegal or not) for protection of the business and their own welfare.

The underground world of Harlem was an outlet for many young, black males as heroine ruled the day. That and other lesser drugs like “reefers” brought figures like Detroit Red to the streets and later, Malcolm X. Even Red Foxx got his start as a bus boy on the railroads transportation to and from Harlem. The other side to the underground was its spiritual symbols. Churches adorned thru Harlem Rev. Adam Clayton Powell Sr. He was the pastor of the Abyssinia Baptist Church and called Harlem “The symbol of liberty and the promise land for negroes everywhere”.

It was the coming together of artists in various forms of expression from across the nation that met and shared their experiences, dreams and ideas that made the Harlem Renaissance what it was. You had fellow writers helping each other find jobs and get published. You had musicians helping each other find connections in the industry. Actors networking in the hub – Harlem.

The Langston Hughes impact on Harlem was a great influence, probably the most famed of all its inhabitants. The collection of writers in one place, at one time is unmatched to this day. Writers like Claude McKay, who was considered the first significant writer in the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote “Harlem Shadow”, a volume of poetry in 1922. The poem “If We Must Die” was his most noted in response to the “Red Summer of 1919”. Jean Toomer made a significant contribution with only one work. A series of stories and lyrics about African Americans’ life in the rural South titled “Cane”. This was characterized by its strong sense of racial pride.

Countee Cullen was recognized as a poet while still in high school and published his first book of poems titled “Color” in 1925. It contained verses delicately dealing with the race problem. Of the same year, his works began to appear in Vanity Fair, a popular white magazine. His “Ballad of the Brown Girl” and “Copper” were published in 1927. Today, he’s considered one of the major poets of the 20th century. The African American publications “Opportunity Crisis”, “The Messenger”, “Challenge”, “The Voice”, “The Crusador”, “The Emancipator” and “Negro World” provided African Americans a forum for their works and a true outlet like never before.

Jessie Redmond Fausets’ 1924 novel “There is Confusion” presented both pride and the attributes of middle class African Americans confronted with racial problems. As a literary editor, she had a significant influence on other writers. Walter White, in addition to being a prominent civil rights leader, was a prolific writer. He devoted much of his life to denouncing racism and rallying African Americans against racial intolerance through his books, syndicated columns, magazine articles and speeches. He hosted social affairs to promote black artists and performers. The guest list included both white and black literary figures. He wrote six books, three during the Renaissance era. Nella Larson dealt with pertinent social problems of black women in American and Europe in her works “Quick Sand” in 1928 and “Passing” in 1929.

The music if the Harlem Renaissance plus dance and drama were historic as well. There were so many avenues of expression in one section of New York. Harlem was, and is “UNPRECEDENTED”. Jazz and Blues brought the greats to Harlem and also produced some. There were big bands like Count Bassie and cab Calloway and singers like Charlie Bird Parker, Bessie Smith, Alberta Hunter, Ethel Waters. Musicians from all over flocked to Harlem to play on stage in the Mecca of black folks, to mix and mingle in a place where it was “happening”. As the 20’s began, the Blues and then Jazz came out of the cotton fields and churches into the white masses for the first time. What W.E.B Du Bois called our “sorrow songs” now reached the clubs, big and extravagant clubs and the small inns of Harlem. The streets were ready for it. The clothes, the vibe, African American dance studios opened up to teach new dances like the lindy hop and the shuffle. Clubs such as the famed “Cotton Club” were known as the “aristocrat of Harlem”. “Connie’s Inn” and “Ed’s Paradise” were the proliferation of night life. The house parties and “juga joints” were just as popular with the “Harlemites”. Stage and theatres were working also. You must see “The Nichols Brothers” perform poetry in motion. The twins were dancing excellence! Black face was in effect but still, actors performed on Broadway stages.

Allaine Locke, along with Claude McKay set the bench mark in Harlem for writers. Locke spoke up first and foremost, saying “Negro life is seizing upon its first chance for group expression and self-determination”. The spokesman of the Renaissance also said, “The Negro was shaking off the psychology of limitation and implied inferiority and creating a literature and their lives”. There’s a reason he is referred to as “The Father of the Harlem Renaissance”. Langston Hughs and Zora Neale Hurston are synonyms with the Harlem movement. These two prolific writers embodied the black rebellion as they sought to gain acceptance and truly END oppression by proving competency through written expression. They saw literary expression as a natural form for protest against Southern slavery, Jim Crow Laws and the nationwide (including the North) treatment of African Americans.

The Red Summer of 1919 had chilling riots across the nation. Two dozen riots occurred in Longview Texas; Washington D.C.; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Elaine, Arkansas; Chicago, Illinois and Knoxville, Tennessee. All these contributed to the rise of the Harlem Renaissance. The open courage in an era of racism most foul and still stinging with the pains of slavery was impressive. The Great Depression of 1930 eroded the creativity and artistic output. It warned in its popularity. Yet, in its time, Harlem brought a collective voice to the cause. It brought thousands together for the common good of African Americans.


-Simply KJS

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Black History Month: 29 Days of Profiles (Phillip A. Payton Jr.)

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If Harlem is the home of the African America, its history more entrenched and richer than Atlanta. You may think blacks just migrated there, but it was a more devised effort and the business mind of one of our Often-Overlooked great entrepreneurs Mr. Phillip A. Payton. But, this gentleman we will look at now, first and foremost, was a business man in a time when there were few with the vision/goal of becoming wealthy. Most of our leaders found money thru their lifetime contribution and most died penniless (Phillis Wheatley). Not to discount Philip A. Payton Jr.’s value to our history as he was the orchestrator of one of the most productive periods in African American history, the Harlem Renaissance!

The time was just after the Civil War and black soldiers were coming home to situations not much different than before. Many black leaders believed the black soldiers fighting for our very existence in the Civil War would finally bring racial justice to our race. Wrong!

All the whites saw were black soldiers who probably “killed whites” in the war. The HATE and resentment in the South grew. If you can believe “they” were capable of inflicting more hate and more discrimination. So, despite the short comings of the war for blacks, the fact was a whole, “we” enjoyed money like never before. The war provided us, as a collective, to have money for the first time. With this, a rash migration from the South began AGAIN!

Blacks were traveling and settling together. Mainly for safety, but this unity caused black owned communities from freed blacks. This was the beginning of the most famous of communities, the birth of the Harlem Renaissance period!

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This period in American history saw a flourishing in literacy and artistic talent among African Americans, as well as a flourishing of productivity in politics, business and entertainment. It was a time when blacks showed “racial assertiveness”, racial dignity and an outburst of literacy and artistic expression. Blacks inside Harlem formed social clubs and held cocktail parties and dances. Creative people came from all over to perform and be in a cultural bomb. They made a prosperous black community where they could live comfortably and reach a larger world black audience.

The Harlem Renaissance period produced some of our greatest black heroes and leaders. Such as, Allain Locke, Langston Hughs, Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, Countee Cullen, Jesse Redmond Fauset, Bessie Smith, Alberta Hunter, Ethel Weters, Paul Roberson, Walter White, the Cotton Club, the Connie’s Inn and, of course, the “Father of Harlem”, Mr. Phillip A. Payton Jr. He was not artistic, a writer, nor an entertainer. No, he was an “Astute, Aggressive African American businessman”!

How did Harlem, New York come to be? Well, first know Harlem Renaissance is a term designed to a period in American history between 1920 and 1930. Harlem was the black cultural capitol in America. It came to be by accident, mostly. By 1881, Manhattan’s (Downtown, U.S.A) elevated railroad lines had reached Harlem. So, this now made Harlem prime residential potential. Land speculators brought up land all through Harlem. Planning it to become an expensive, white, middle class area with close proximity to Manhattan, but they over built. When the influx of white residents didn’t materialize, along came businessman Phillip A. Payton Jr. He brought up, acquired loans and took out I.O.U’s to purchase property. Now, for the first time in New York history, blacks had nice, decent, newly constructed homes and apartments. With the wartime prosperity, it enabled numbers of African Americans from all classes to save and invest in Harem property and “they came”.

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We cannot go on without speaking on one of Harlem’s residents whom achieved a fortune being one of the first students of Payton’s real estate plan. Mrs. Mary Dean, best known as “Pig foot Mary”, a woman from the South who pushed a cart and sold pigs feet. She invested with Payton early and made a fortune.

Philip A Payton Jr. (February 27, 1876 – August 1917) An African American real estate entrepreneur known as “The Father of Harlem”.

Payton was born in Westfield, Massachusetts. His father insisted that his children learn a trade. So, Payten learned his father’s craft, a barber.

He attended Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina. He went back home and worked as a barber until 1899, when he decided he wanted more and left for New York where he worked odd jobs. He listened and learned his real estate craft, as he worked as a janitor for a real estate company. In October, 1900, he and his firm partner Brown, formed “Brown and Payton”. This is a quote by Payton during the tough times – “I knew if I made one good sale, I could make enough to keep me going for a year. I came so near making a good sale so many times that I knew I was bound to hit before long”.

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He did. Patyon had vision and determination! A true entrepreneur!

If Harlem is our home than we all should know the “Father” the man who built the land, not with his hands but with his mind and vision then came the Harlem- Renaissance and history tells the rest! #YoungBlackHistorian and I live by that claim and driven by that aim Kjs, #BAF Copyright 2017

Black History Month: 29 Days of Profiles (Mary B. Talbert)

Happy 15th day of our Black History Month. In our history, many have heeded the call to produce change for the condition of our people here in America. The stage is set now at the onset of World War I. On April 6, 1917, the United States joined the allied nations of Europe (England, France, Russia and Italy) in war against the continents’ central powers (Germany, Austria and Turkey). There by transforming the European war into WWI.

Blacks were planning as a race and moving towards demanding equality. The war changed the momentum of our quest. At the time, W.E.B Du Bois had his “close ranks” agenda for the blacks. The NAACP had a vast majority of blacks doing what Du Bois and the NAACP suggested. They had many involved in the Five Loan Campaigns. The campaign was the blacks’ effort to provide for the war effort. Du Bois and the NAACP jumped in with efforts to be a part of the war cause. The campaign raised funds to pay the cost of war and it increased food production. Mary B. Talbert, the President of the National Association of Colored Women (NACWC) reported that black women alone purchased more than $5 million worth of bonds in the Third Liberty Loan Drive.

Mary B. Talbert (September 17, 1866 – October 15, 1923) was President of the NACWC, Orator, Activist, Women suffragist reformer and co-founder of Niagara Movement. She, in her time, was called “the best known colored woman in the United States. Besides that title, she was among the most prominent for the cause of African Americans. She was born in Oberlin, Ohio. Her early years were safer and more secure than most blacks. Thanks to her mother Carolina Nicholls Burnett and her hard working and small town activist Corne Louis Burnett. Talbert graduated Oberlin High School at age 16 and by age 19, obtained a literary degree from Oberlin College. She began a career as a teacher at Bethel University in Little Rock, Arkansas.

Mary met and married William H. Talbert, an affluent business man in Buffalo, New York, where she relocated and had her only child, Sarah Mary Talbert. Over the next 30 years, Mary Talbert positioned herself in the fabric of Buffalo as a strong, outspoken citizen civil and women’s rights. In 1899, in a tribute to one of her role models, Talbert became one of the founding members of the Phillis Wheatley Club for Colored Women and became a member of the Buffalo, N.Y. affiliate National Association of Colored Women (NACW).

Her position was so respected and strong that in 1905, Talbert’s home and city was chosen to host the most prominent black leaders of the time. Including W.E.B Du Bois, John Hope and nearly 30 others around her dining room table. The meeting was a gathering of black political activists to discuss the power and message by the black voice with the white south’s intentions by Booker T. Washington. The meeting was the beginnings of the Niagara Movement, the seeds of the National Association of Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Talbert was one of the first women to join the NAACP.

She was the most respected in America, at her time, despite being a woman in that day. She was a prominent black woman in the ugliest time for African Americans. In 1916, Talbert was elected President of the NACW and then bestowed with the Vice Presidency of the NAACP. The government acknowledged her presence and fortitude for Women’s rights. She was asked to be one of only a handful of Red Cross nurses to serve on the Western front of Europe after the United States entered WWI in 1917.

Mrs. Mary Talbert was Oprah Winfrey before Oprah. Women have always been a true instrument for change and I’m speaking for ALL races of women. Talbert’s inspiration was the mother of the black cause in America, Phillis Wheatley.

-Simply KJS


Black History Month: 29 Days of Profiles (Martin R. Delany)

Happy Black History Month, day 13. While the masses of “US” benefit greatly from the love and sacrifice of the footsteps of the past! We have focused on the contributions of the written word. We’ve focused on reshaping American’s views of the position of African American’s thru inventions and applied mathematics. We’ve raised our voice and hands thru militant movements. We’ve seen our race journey through migration.

Now, we’ve come to emigration and the mission and thought of many of our leaders, the birth of the back to Africa movement thru a true activist.

Martin Robinson Delany (May 6, 1812 – January 24, 1885)

Delany was one of the most important men pre civil war who’s legacy exists hundreds of years after it ended. Most notable of his achievements was his career as an abolitionist. Just as many Americans, he was versatile in his movements. He became a writer, physician, journalist and a Major in the Civil War. He was an inspiration to his race and humanity.

In his early beginnings, Delany was born in Charlestown, which is now a part of West Virginia. His parents were Pati and Samuel Delany (Samuel was renamed by his slave captures). Delany’s linage thru his father was that of nobility. His father was a prince originally named Shango of the Oyo Empire from Nigeria in the 15th Century. Their empire reached mythical lore. His father was captured and introduced to slavery in the United States with his wife Pati. Shortly after, they were granted freedom by the state of Virginia. Some believe it was due to his noble birth. His father quickly returned to Africa but, Pati stayed in the United States with young Delany and his siblings. They learned to read and write in Virginia even though it was against the law for any black person, free or slave to do so. His mother moved her children to Chamberburg, Pennsylvania for the protection of a free state. Delany continued his education and as a youth and worked as a barber and general laborer. He was enthralled by the stories his mother voiced to him about his father and other blacks in charge of life and land in Africa. At this ripe age he traveled to Africa to visit his roots. What a bold and life altering move this was. As many historians believe, as do I, that he learned how strong blacks could be and it instilled in him pride and dignity which he carried with him throughout his life.

Upon his return, he focused on his first love which was medicine. Delany studied under Dr. Andrew N. McDowell in Pittsburg and learned such medical techniques as fire-cupping and leeching. At this time he was also involved in political issues and in 1835 he attended “The National Negro Convention”. Following this, Delany began to publish writings on public matters. They caught the eye of the abolitionists of that time. Especially William Lloyd Garrison, the founder of “The Liberator” and a great friend the slaves’ condition in the United States. Garrison was a white leader in the abolitionist movement. While living in Pittsburg in 1843 Delany married a wealthy woman named Catherine A. Richards. Together they had 11 children. Seven years after they were married, Delany and two other men named Daniel Laing and Isaac H. Sowden were enrolled at Harvard Medical School in November of 1850.

Delany got a chance to meet Frederick Douglass while he and Garrison were in Pittsburg on an anti-slavery tour. Together the three planted the seed for a newspaper publication titled “Northstar” which was birthed in 1848 in Rochester, New York. It was led by Douglass while Delany and Garrison traveled for lectures and reports on the very conditions of blacks in the United States. Rochester became a strong hold for the abolitionist movement.

The direct discrimination that set Delany to his most personal accomplishment as a pioneer of black-nationalism in the United States was ironically significant even in American History. After one rejection from entry into the Harvard Medical School, Delany produced 17 letters of support from Physicians across the country. He, Sowden and Laing were introduced as the first black students to attend. However, the Jim Crow laws were very much alive and well and less than 30 days later students of Harvard held protest and wrote a formal letter to the controlling body. It stated that they did not object to the education of black students but having blacks give lectures and written journals would be detrimental to the institutions interest. Delany, Sowden and Laing were dismissed.

He returned to Pittsburg hurt and focused on facing discrimination head on in the United States. He was assured equality would never be allowed by the ruling class. At this time he wrote his most famous book “The Condition, Elevation, Emigration and Destiny of Colored People of the United States, Politically Considered”. In 1852 this book was born from the pain and realization of his desire to change and improve blacks’ condition. It is where he first stated “Blacks have no future in the United States”. Delany believed strongly at this time that blacks had more claim to America that whites. He took on the position of his predecessor Paul Cuffe. He embodied the past stance on emigration and suggested all blacks should leave the United States and build their own new nation in the West Indies or South America. He angered and alienated some moderate abolitionists who were in strong disagreement with his new direction. Delany vigorously spoke out against businesses that refused to hire blacks and he was one of the first to point out that blacks were becoming nothing more than customers in American society. He was also strong on his stance on racial segregation among the so called friends of blacks, the Freemasons. In August of 1854 Delany led the National Emigration Convention in Cleveland, Ohio. Emigration spread and he became a voice for the restless blacks. Yet, emigration remained a minority as most blacks refused to give up on the foundations on which America was built.

Delany relocated out of the United States as his reputation took many hits and he moved to Chatham in Ontario, Canada. From 1856 to 1859 he resided there, but frequently took trips back to the United States. One reason being, the powerful impact of the stage play of Harriet Beecher Stow’s book “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”, released in 1852 . It inspired him to begin a series of books. The first was “Blake; or Huts of America”. He backed his new found mission with a manifesto called “Political Destiny of the Colored Race on the American Continent” and demanded every political right and freedom that whites enjoyed in America. Things were coming to a head with protest, voting rallies and race riots. Men and women like Delany fanned the flames of true change.

As Paul Cuffe before him, Delany understood the value of connections with other blacks internationally. So, in May 1859 he sailed from New York to Liberia to set up his vision of a “New Black Nation”. He reached a verbal understanding and arrangement with the eight chiefs in the Abeokuta region to utilize unused lands with the strong hopes of relocating black Americans. However, the agreement dissolved due to war. Confrontation with American missionaries soured the chief’s stance on allowing Americans into their society. Also, the ambers of the American Civil War were beginning to spark. Delany traveled to England where he was honored by the “International Statistical Congress” but during the ceremony the American delegate walked out in protest.

Another milestone in his life was his presence in the Civil War. In 1865 Delany met with President Lincoln. A meeting granted to him because of his enthusiastic recruiting efforts enlisting thousands for the newly formed United States colored troops. Delany made a proposal to the President for a branch of colored soldiers led by colored officers. The same proposal had been made earlier by Fredrick Douglass, but was denied. Lincoln wrote that Delany was a “most extraordinary and intelligent man” and appointed him a Major in the U.S. Army which was the highest rank any black man had ever obtained during the Civil War. Many black leaders such as Fredrick Douglass, Henry Garnet and Henry McNeal Turner had a prevailing thought that the war was an opportunity to deliver a final crushing blow to slavery. Delany was changed after the war and saw it as the finalization of oppression. Delany’s stance softened on emigration and he was so entrenched in the implication of the “Reconstruction Era”. In America and its new developing policies he was now even opposed to some blacks whom were freely vying for political offices such as the vice presidential candidacy of J.J Wright. On the grounds of his woeful inexperience and also another black man’s bid for the seat of Mayor of Charlestown, South Carolina, Delany was appointed to the post of Trial Justice in Charlestown. In 1875 he faced charges of fraud and lost his position. He was convicted and even spent time in prison. He was soon pardoned by a Republican Governor and the evidence that convicted has always been questioned. However, it destroyed some of his credibility in the political circles.

On January 24, 1885 Delany died of Tuberculosis in Wiberforce, Ohio. Although many historians seem to forget Paul Cuffe, the original father of Black Nationalism, that title has been bestowed upon Delany. Despite that debate, he galvanized the black struggles more publically then Cuffe ever did. Delany was a pioneer in what is called Black Nationalism in the United States. The movement seems to conjure the image of violence and a rebellious stance. However, it has many forms 1. Militant 2. Organized 3. Educational 4. Spiritual 5. Pan-American/Pan-Negro.

Simply KJS